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:::: Earthquake :: Masonry construction with rectangular masonry units

Masonry units
The design and construction of masonry walls using rectangular masonry units in general shall be governed by IS 1905:1987 and IS 2212:1991.
Well burnt bricks, solid concrete bricks and hollow concrete bricks having a strength not less than 35Mpa shall be used. (see IS 1905: 1987 and IS 1597(part 2): 1992.

Mortar 
Cement mortar of ratio not less than 1:6 shall be used as specified in IS 4326 : 1993.

Walls
Masonry bearing walls built in mortar, unless rationally designed as reinforced masonry, shall not be built of greater height than 15m subject to a maximum of four storey’s when measured from the mean ground level to the roof slab or ridge level.

The masonry bearing walls shall be reinforced in accordance with 8.41 of IS 4326: 1993,to make it a sheer wall. The overall strengthening arrangements to be adopted consists of horizontal bands at plinth, bottom sill of windows, below the roof or floors, and vertical reinforcement bars at corners, junctions of walls and jams of doors windows and openings. 
   

Overall arrangement of reinforcing masonry buildings

1. Lintel band
 
2. Roof/Floor band
 
3. Vertical bar
 
4. Door
 
5. Window

Typical details of providing vertical steel bars in conventional brick (clay) masonry

Corner of 1 brick wall

odd layer

even layer

Fig (a)

Junction of 1 brick wall

odd layer

even layer

Fig (b)

 V - vertical reinforcement with cement concrete infill 

 
 Vertical reinforcements in cavities of ULTRA BRICKS

  
Overall arrangement of reinforcing masonry building having pitched roof

1. Lintel band
2. Eave level (roof) band
3. Cable band
4. Door
5. Window
6. Vertical steel bar
7. Rafter
8. Holding down bolt
9. Brick / Stone wall
10. Door lintel integrated with roof band
  • Perspective view
  • Details of truss connections
  • Detail of integrating door lintel with roof band
 
Steel reinforcing bars shall be embedded with adequate cover in cement sand mortar not leaner than 1:3 with minimum clear cover of 10mm.The bearing walls in both direction shall be straight and symmetrical in plan as far as possible.
 
Openings in bearing walls
Door and window openings in walls reduce their lateral load resistance and hence, should preferably be small and more centrally located. The guidelines on the size and position of opening are given in table of IS 4326:1993. 
 

Size and Position of Openings in Bearing Walls 

Sl. No:  Position of opening  Details of Opening for Building Category
 
1.
 
2.
 
 
 
 
3.
 
4.
 
Distance b5 from the inside corner of outside wall, minimum 
For total length of openings, the ratio (b1+b2+b3) / (b6+b7) / I2 shall not exceed: 
a) one - storied building
b) two - storied building 
c) 3 or 4 storied building
Pier width between consecutive Openings 
b4, minimum
Vertical distance between two openings one above the other h3, minimum 
A & B C D & E 
Zero mm   230 mm 450 mm 
0.60   0.55 0.50 
0.50   0.46 0.42 
0.42  0.37  0.33 
340 mm  450mm  560mm
600mm  600mm  600mm 
1. Door
 
2. Ventilator
 
3. Window
 
4. Cross wall
Providing vertical reinforcement as in Fig (a) & (b) shown above is difficult and labor oriented with conventional bricks (clay).

ULTRA BRICKS is the only solution.     

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